Filipino Version of Penn Facial Pain Scale: Phase 1 Validation Study


Background and Objective of the Study

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) affects 4-5 people per 100,000 population. Because of its key feature - sudden intense facial pain, immediate and long-term treatment is warranted. The newly validated Penn Facial Pain Scale (PFPS) is of great value for assessment of how trigeminal pain and its treatment affect our patients’ lives. This study translated the PFPS to a Filipino version which can be used with ease in our setting.


Study Design: Validity study

Methods: Forward translation was carried out by an expert. The initial output was sent to 10 Neurologists for content and face validity. The experts rated each item’s relevance and through item level content validity index, items which scored >0.80 were accepted and those that scored lower were subjected to discussion by the investigators. The revised questionnaire was then administered to 8 TN patients for face validity. The final output was back translated and compared to the original PFPS.

Results: Content and face validity as assessed by 10 neurologists showed that all questions were relevant. Some words were edited according to their suggestions. Eight TN patients voluntarily answered the edited version of the questionnaire for face validity and cognitive debriefing. No further changes were made to the edited questionnaire which was then back translated. The back translation was found to be similar to the original PFPS.

Conclusion: The Filipino version is similar to the original PFPS and can be used in evaluation of TN. A Phase 2 reliability study should be ideally done prior to utilization in clinical setting.

Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, facial pain, pain scale, pain assessment

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Conflict of Interest

The authors did not receive any monetary incentives for this study and it is not funded or supported by any pharmaceutical company. The principal investigators have nothing else to disclose.


The authors would like to thank Dr. JY Lee, the developer for Penn Facial Pain scale for giving us the opportunity to translate this evaluation tool. We would also like to acknowledge Dr. Venus Rosales and her team of statisticians for helping us from day 1 of protocol writing until the completion of the article and to the expert respondents for sharing their time and knowledge. Our deepest and most sincere gratitude to our patients, you are the heart and essence of our being as doctors and researchers.

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