The Need to Vaccinate Against COVID-19


Globally, now in the third year of the pandemic, COVID-19 deaths have exceeded more than 6 million. As new subvariants emerge and spread, vaccines work to limit the worst of COVID-19 and continue to be important. Restraints are lifted, and COVID-19 may be seen as done for some, but COVID-19 is not yet done with others, no matter how badly everyone wants it to end. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The protection provided by vaccines and booster doses offer a method of mitigating severe clinical outcomes and mortality. As debates over additional booster shots for COVID-19 intensify, many researchers are looking to the universal coronavirus vaccine model as a guide for managing future variants of SARS-CoV-2 and preempt the next COVID-19 surge.

Key words: Pandemic, COVID-19, Vaccination, Health Inequity, Pregnancy, Booster, Universal Vaccines

  1. World Health Organization. Pneumonia of unknown cause — China. 2020 [cited 2022 Oct 12] Available from: 
  2. O’Callaghan KP, Blatz AM, Offit PA. Developing a SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine at Warp Speed. JAMA. 2020 July 6;324(5):437–8.
  3. US Coronavirus vaccine tracker – USAFacts. What’s the nation’s progress on vaccinations? Available from:
  4. Watson OJ, Barnsley G, Toor J, Hogan AB, Winskill P, Ghani AC. Global impact of the first year of COVID-19 vaccination: a mathematical modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis [Internet]. 2022;22(9):1293–302. Available from:
  5. Hillis S, N’konzi J-PN, Msemburi W, Cluver L, Villaveces A, Flaxman S, et al. Orphanhood and caregiver loss among children based on new global excess COVID-19 death estimates. JAMA Pediatr [Internet]. 2022;176(11):1145–8. Available from:
  6. Moore S, Hill EM, Dyson L, Tildesley MJ, Keeling MJ. Retrospectively modeling the effects of increased global vaccine sharing on the COVID-19 pandemic. Nat Med [Internet]. 2022. Available from:
  7. Sparks G, Lopes L, Montero A, Hamel L, Brodie M. KFF COVID-19 vaccine monitor: Pregnancy misinformation – May 2022 [Internet]. KFF. 2022 [cited 2022 Oct 12]. Available from:
  8. Halasa NB, Olson SM, Staat MA, Newhams MM, Price AM, Boom JA, et al. Effectiveness of maternal vaccination with mRNA COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy against COVID-19-associated hospitalization in infants aged <6 months - 17 states, July 2021-January 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2022;71(7):264–70. Available from:
  9. Shook LL, Atyeo CG, Yonker LM, Fasano A, Gray KJ, Alter G, et al. Durability of anti-spike antibodies in infants after maternal COVID-19 vaccination or natural infection. JAMA [Internet]. 2022;327(11):1087–9. Available from:
  10. Slomski A. Long COVID in children. JAMA [Internet]. 2022;328(13):1288. Available from:
  11. Link-Gelles R, Levy ME, Gaglani M, Irving SA, Stockwell M, Dascomb K, et al. Effectiveness of 2, 3, and 4 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine doses among immunocompetent adults during periods when SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2/BA.2.12.1 sublineages predominated - VISION network, 10 states, December 2021-June 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2022;71(29):931–9. Available from:
  12. Thompson MG, Natarajan K, Irving SA, Rowley EA, Griggs EP, Gaglani M, et al. Effectiveness of a third dose of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 associated emergency department and urgent care encounters and hospitalizations among adults during periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance - VISION Network, 10 states, August 2021-January 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2022;71(4):139–45. Available from:
  13. Massetti GM, Jackson BR, Brooks JT, Perrine CG, Reott E, Hall AJ, et al. Summary of guidance for minimizing the impact of COVID-19 on individual persons, communities, and health care systems - United States, august 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2022;71(33):1057–64. Available from:
  14. Nohynek H, Wilder-Smith A. Does the world still need new covid-19 vaccines? N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2022;386(22):2140–2. Available from:
  15. Chalkias S, Harper C, Vrbicky K, Walsh SR, Essink B, Brosz A, et al. A bivalent Omicron-containing booster vaccine against Covid-19. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2022;387(14):1279–91. Available from: 
  16. CDC COVID data tracker. COVID-19 Vaccinations in the United States [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020 [cited 2022 Oct 12]. Available from:
  17. Morens DM, Folkers GK, Fauci AS. The concept of classical herd immunity may not apply to COVID-19. J Infect Dis [Internet]. 2022;226(2):195–8. Available from:
  18. Dolgin E. Pan-coronavirus vaccine pipeline takes form. Nat Rev Drug Discov [Internet]. 2022;21(5):324–6. Available from:
  19. Oliveira SC, de Magalhães MTQ, Homan EJ. Immunoinformatic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and identification of COVID-19 vaccine targets. Front Immunol [Internet]. 2020;11:587615. Available from: 

Articles related to the one you are viewing

There are currently no results to show, please try again later

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, which permits use, share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material, as long as you give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. You may not use the material for commercial purposes. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original. You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit